The Laws of Tautology (MA176E)

Repetition by addition or multiplication does not alter the truth value of an element. Figure below shows the circuit diagram correspondent to this lay:






a + a = a

a x a = a


Mathematic Notation (Set Theory):

a ∩ a = a

a ∪ a = a


Logic Notation:

a ∧ a = a

a ∨ a = a